In my own book, Child to Parent Violence and Abuse: a Practitioner’s Guide to Working with Families, I included examples of how different individuals had sought to “make real” the issue of data, and prevalence of CPVA for their own work and that of other practitioners and policy makers. Elizabeth McCloud had spoken to me at a conference some years earlier about the project she was undertaking, and she is one of the people referenced in my work. So I was thrilled to hear that her research was completed, and available to all. My one regret is that I did not find the time to read this earlier.
The book is aimed at “academics, professionals and policy makers with an interest in youth offending, contextual safeguarding and domestic violence”. One of the first to undertake a large quantitative study of this size in the UK, McCloud sought to identify specific characteristics and experiences at home and school associated with the experience of adolescent to parent violence and abuse (APVA), and explored whether these could be used to predict its occurrence. As such it includes important new information about both bullying and sibling abuse, two areas which have received less coverage in this country.
Over the course of eight chapters, McCloud sets out the detail of her work and findings in the context of previous research, theoretical approaches, and the development of policy, and makes recommendations for future investigation, as well as the application of her findings to day to day work within services concerned with the safety and well-being of young people and families. As a narrative of the course of her research, it is by its nature an academic work. Indeed, chapter 6 carries a warning: “this chapter is dense with statistics”. Nevertheless, the discussion within each section brings these findings to life and makes the research more accessible to those of us less familiar with statistical language.
Discussing the problem that we still have no agreed terminology or definition, McCloud offers her own definition: Any pattern of intended incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse by an adolescent (10 to 18 years old) towards a parent or carer. This can encompass, but is not limited to, the following types of abuse: psychological, emotional, physical, sexual abuse, financial and economic. Through the use of questionnaires undertaken across 2 secondary schools, with 890 young people between the ages of 10 and 18 , she considers three separate categories of abuse, psychological, physical and severe, and examines the influence of personal and family characteristics in each case, for example emotional difficulties, family stress, substance use, and broader aggressive behaviour. Of particular interest, chapter 5 outlines significant associations between APVA behaviour and the experience of bullying, whether as a victim, observer or perpetrator.
The final chapter looks at the implications of the findings, and McCloud recommends that APVA could be screened for in universal settings such as schools. Furthermore, she suggests the need for a holistic whole family approach to assessment, and intervention via a tiered model (universal, early help, targeted and specialist), recognising the escalating levels of APVA.
While McCloud is at pains to locate her findings within the larger body of work, there are also important new insights regarding the links between sibling abuse and APVA; and between bullying, particularly in schools, and APVA behaviour within the home. This latter area of work is one of particular interest to me and so I hope that this will be taken up and developed further. The contributions to understanding are thus significant and timely.
Adolescent-to-Parent Violence and Abuse: Applying Research to Policy and Practice (2021) is published by Palgrave Macmillan and is available in print and as an ebook.